What you will find on this page: Special Climate Statement 64 – record warmth in Tasman SeaSpecial Climate Statement 62 – record heat in SeptemberSpecial Climate Statement 61 – exceptional heatAnnual Climate Statement 2016 (video); State of the Climate Report 2016 (video); record September rainsclimate zones on the move; Australia’s changing rainfall zones;  BOM UPDATES: ENSO Wrap-up (El Nino/La Nina); climate outlook update (video); climate outlook – monthly & seasonal; latest drought statement; heatwave outlook; Water in Australia 2014-2015 Report; monthly water update; Australian landscape water balance; Special Climate Statements

Where the rubber hits the road – what IS the weather doing?

The difference between weather and climate is a measure of time. Weather is what conditions of the atmosphere are over a short period of time, and climate is how the atmosphere “behaves” over relatively long periods of time. (NASA) 

Understanding what drives climate in Victoria and how they are changing

The Climatedogs animation series is an award winning series of short animated videos produced by DEPI. The animations explain what drives the climate in Victoria, and how climate drivers are changing over time. Access here for more information

Special Climate Statement 64 – Record warmth in the Tasman Sea, New Zealand and Tasmania. Joint statement with NIWA (New Zealand)

27 March 2018 – Sea surface temperatures in the southern Tasman Sea rose to exceptionally high levels in late 2017 and early 2018. These temperatures were far above any others previously observed at that time of year in the region, and extended west from New Zealand to Tasmania and mainland southeast Australia. In parallel with this, land temperatures were well above average in areas near the Tasman Sea warm anomalies, with many records set both in New Zealand and in southeast Australia (especially Tasmania).Access full report here

Special Climate Statement 62 – Exceptional September heat in eastern Australia

5 October 2017 – On 22 September 2017, Australia as a whole had its warmest September day since national area-averaged temperature records began in 1911. In the following week, New South Wales and Queensland had their warmest September days on record, and South Australia, Victoria and the Northern Territory each had days in their top-10 warmest for September. More than 20% of Australia by area recorded its hottest September day on record during 22–29 September. Access full report here

Special Climate Statement 61—exceptional heat in southeast Australia in early 2017

22 February 2017 – Summer 2016–17 saw prolonged and, at times, extreme heat over New South Wales, southern Queensland, South Australia and parts of northern Victoria. January 2017 saw the highest monthly mean temperatures on record for Sydney and Brisbane, and the highest daytime temperatures on record for Canberra. In January and February, there were three distinct heatwaves in southeast Australia, with the highest temperatures recorded over 9–12 February 2017. The periods between the waves of extreme heat also saw above average temperatures over large areas of east and southeast Australia. It was the consistency of high temperatures more than the extreme temperatures themselves that made early 2017 an exceptional event. Access full report here

Annual Climate Statement 2017

Access summary here


State of the Climate Report – 2016 2015

The Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO play an important role in monitoring, analysing and communicating observed changes in Australia’s climate. This fourth, biennial State of the Climate report draws on the latest monitoring, science and projection information to describe variability and changes in Australia’s climate, and how it is likely to change in the future. Observations and climate modelling paint a consistent picture of ongoing, long-term climate change interacting with underlying natural variability. Read more and to access full report here & access commentary here


Special Climate Statement 58 – record September rains continue wet period in much of Australia

12 October 2016: September was an exceptionally wet month over most of the eastern two-thirds of mainland Australia, as a succession of rain-bearing systems affected various parts of the continent. Monthly rainfall was at least double the long-term average over almost all of inland New South Wales and Queensland, most of the Northern Territory and outback South Australia, and parts of northern and western Victoria and eastern South Australia. Averaged over Australia as a whole, it was the second-wettest September on record, just behind September 2010. It was the wettest September on record for New South Wales and the Northern Territory, as well as for the Murray−Darling Basin, while it ranks second-wettest for Victoria, third-wettest for Queensland and fourth-wettest for South Australia. Access full report here

Climate Zones on the move

Rule of Thumb; For every one degree increase in global average temperature the climate zones can move 150kms.

Aust climate zones 1As the planet warms, Earth’s climate zones are shifting at an accelerating pace….The acceleration of change means that the species inhabiting each zone have less time to adapt to the climatic changes…. “The warmer the climate gets, the faster the climate zones are shifting.  This could make it harder for plants and animals to adjust.” Read More here & here

According to research in Nature Climate Changewith a warming of 2°C, about 5% of land would shift into a new climate zone. As the temperatures rise another 2°C, 10% of the land area shifts to a new zone.

The results of a study published in the journal Biological Conservation recently concluded that in Australia, the climate is warming to an extent that many specialised tree species that require cooler climates are struggling. Typically, these trees would start to shift to cooler environments, but as Craig Costion explained “they already live on mountain tops…they have no other place to go.”

Australia’s changing rainfall zones

Australia Changing climate zones



Source: Australian Export Grains Innovation Centre

BOM Newsroom for latest weather alerts

The Bureau of Meteorology Newsroom has been designed to provide material that can be easily sourced and referenced by journalists in media coverage of weather, warnings and other information of public interest. Access Newsroom here


BOM ENSO Wrap-up

Latest BOM: Issued on Next issue 

Swivel chart pointing at red alert El Niño ALERT; positive Indian Ocean Dipole likely underway The Bureau’s ENSO Outlook has been raised to El Niño ALERT. This means there is approximately a 70% chance of El Niño occurring in 2018—around triple the normal likelihood. Similarly, in the Indian Ocean, a positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) may have started. When combined, these two events in spring increase the possibility of a dry and warm end to the year. It also raises the risk of heatwaves and bushfire weather in the south, but reduces the risk of tropical cyclone activity in the north. The tropical Pacific Ocean has warmed in recent weeks due to weakening of the trade winds, while the Southern Oscillation Index has fallen to typical El Niño levels. Models suggest further warming of the Pacific is likely. Four of eight models predict El Niño thresholds will likely be exceeded in the coming months, with another two falling just short. In the Indian Ocean, there are signs that a positive IOD is currently underway. The IOD index has exceeded the threshold (+0.4 °C) for the last four weeks. However, these values must persist until November for it to be considered a positive IOD event. Model outlooks suggest positive IOD values are likely to continue through the austral spring, before returning to neutral values in late November to December. Source: ENSO Wrap-up

BOM Climate Outlook Update

BOM Climate outlooks – monthly and seasonal

Climate outlook overview (access full outlook here)

  • Maximum temperature outlook mapThe October to December climate outlook, issued 13 September 2018, indicates large parts of Australia are likely to be drier than average.
  • October shows a strong likelihood of drier conditions across most of the country. However, the outlook for the eastern seaboard is different, with no strong indication of either a wetter or drier month.
  • October to December days and nights are likely to be warmer than average for all of Australia.
  • A drier and warmer-than-average end to the year would mean a low chance of recovery for drought-affected areas of eastern Australia.
  • The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) are currently neutral. However, current observations and model outlooks indicate El Niño and a positive IOD could develop in spring. See the Climate Influences section for more information. 


BOM Latest Drought Statement

The latest and full Drought Statement is now available on the Bureau’s website. Issued 3 October 2018

Rainfall deficiencies continue and increase in severity for the east

  • September was Australia’s driest on record
  • Rainfall was very much below average nationally, and particularly low across the southern mainland
  • Rainfall deficiencies have increased across eastern Australia and southern coastal areas of Western Australia at each of the 6-, 9- and 18-month timescales
  • Lower-level soil moisture was below average for September across eastern and northern Australia, and parts of inland and southern Western Australia


BOM Heatwave Service for Australia

The Heatwave Forecast is a Bureau of Meteorology product that showsAust heat record high temp weather map the location of heatwaves, severe heatwaves and extreme heatwaves for the last two three-day periods and the next five three-day periods. It uses some analysis Numerical Weather Prediction model data, not the Official Forecast data. Please refer to official Bureau of Meteorology products for information on how hot each day and night will be during the three day period. Click on image to access BOM site.

April 2016: Just when we thought summer was coming to an end, a prolonged heatwave affected much of Australia during late February and March 2016. A Special Climate Statement includes information and maps about this extended heatwave.

It developed in northern Australia during the second half of February, where temperatures were well above normal from the second week of February onwards. For example, at Julia Creek in Queensland, a run of 21 consecutive days of 40 °C or above began on 12 February, peaking in the last few days of the month. Over the final fortnight of February, maximum temperatures were at least 2 °C above average over most of tropical Australia, and 4–6 °C above average over parts of northwestern Queensland. Read More in BOM’s  Special Climate Statement


Water in Australia – 2014-2015 BOM Report

State summary for all streamflow stations with valid data showing below average flows dominate in New South Wales, Tasmania, Victoria and Western Australia, while average flows dominate in Northern Territory and Queensland, and South Australia had a rough balance of average, above and below average flows in 2014-15.Water in Australia 2014–15 describes the characteristics of the country’s water resources, availability and use from 1 July 2014 to 30 June 2015 in the context of climatic conditions, and past water availability and use. In 2014–15, Australia generally experienced below-average rainfall (10 per cent less than the national average since 1910–11) with large seasonal and regional variation, including below-average rainfall throughout the east, and above-average rainfall in the central north, northwest and southeast. Mainly in the eastern parts of Australia, these patterns were influenced by near-El Niño conditions in spring 2014, evolving into El Niño by May 2015. Read More here



BOM Monthly Water Update

The BOM Monthly Water Update provides an overview of rainfall patterns and streamflow status across Australia. Rainfall is a key driver of streamflow and is shown alongside flows from over 222 gauging stations, across 9 of the 13 topographic drainage divisions in Australia. The Monthly Water Update interprets the hydrological status of surface water flows each month using provisional information from data providers.


BOM Australian Landscape Water Balance

Schematic of the modelled variables in the Australian Landscape Water BalanceDetails accessed through date and location – go here The landscape water balance is the sum of the hydrological processes that keep water moving through a landscape—recharging groundwater, filling streams and flushing water through wetlands. This water balance also determines how much moisture is in the soil—a vital input for seasonal planting and crop production decisions.